Content citation

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The draft Terms of Use and the Community Best Practices documents (iMB5) refer to citation mechanisms to ensure proper acknowledgement of all published content. The proposal for the Business Metadata is envisaged also to allow automatic generation of citations.


Examples of Citations

Here follows examples of citation templates which are under consideration for building the citation mechanism within the iMarine web infrastructure.


The Ocean Biogeographic Information System provides guidelines on citations for the database, for general citation of the OBIS website and for its webpages.

See full text of guidelines and examples at

Example (for database):

OBIS (YEAR). Global biodiversity indices from the Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. Web. (consulted on YYYY/MM/DD)


The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) provides a downloadable document "Recommended practices for citation of data published through the GBIF network" at accessed through

FAO Data

FAO data provides the following citation standards:

  • FAO style
  • APA (6th ed.)
  • Chicago (Author-Date, 15th ed.)
  • Harvard (18th ed.)
  • MLA (7th ed.)

with download facilities as "EndNote" and "Export as Mendeley".

Example based on FAO style:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FISHSTAT. Global Capture Production (Dataset). (Latest update: 10 Jan 2014) Accessed (23 Jun 2014). URI:


The Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA) is following the Anglo-American Cataloguing rules AACR2

Example of ASFA bibliographic reference:

FAO FI Department

The citation mechanism for the FI web pages is based on metadata driven by the FiMES schema which includes FI proprietary and Dublin Core elements.


© FAO 2006-2014. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Capture fisheries. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated 9 June 2014. [Cited 23 June 2014].

Citations for derivative products


  • A derivative product is made of multiple contents from different sources with different owners.
  • As per current iMarine Terms of Use - in case of datasets constituting the derivative product - citations are expected to be referred at dataset level, not a record level.
  • Citations are built upon the available Business Metadata provided by data owners.
  • Citations, beyond other information, allow to understand the sources as well as the data owners and the copyright holders.
  • Citations can be also utilized to acknowledge iMarine.

Template for a citation of a derivative product

Based on the utilization of Business Metadata here follows a draft template on how the citation for a derivative product can be structured.

As per current Terms of Use on "Derivative works and citation": "... Where the derivative work consists of a dataset itself resulting from a composition of multiple datasets with different citations, the creator must include all relevant citations where feasible ...", the citation is therefore made of different citations concatenating all sources utilized for that product. The first level is the formal citation for the derivative product.

  • First Citation level

[© Lead creator/Copyright holder] [Creation date - Current Year] [Collection-Context / Cover Page] [Title] In: [Name Location of the website] [online] Latest update: [Last update date] Accessed:[Date accessed and/or downloaded] [URL Location on website]


Copyright [Copyright licenses statement or URL or CC type]


Product developed with technologies provided by iMarine Data e-Infrastructure



  • Second Citation level (to be repeated as many times as the number of Sources)

[© Owner] [Creation date] [Title] In: [Name Location of the website] [online] Latest update: [Last update date] Accessed:[Date accessed and/or downloaded] [URL Location on website]

- OR -

[Custom bibliographic citation as indicated by data Owner] (as per Terms of Use and DC element dcterms:bibliographicCitation in Business Metadata)


Copyright [Copyright licenses statement or URL or CC type]

The above template utilizes a minimal sub-set of the business metadata. Citations can be enriched with more meta information when available.

Technical implementations

This section is aiming to provide useful links and possible scenarios for implementing the above principles and examples. A link to the technical page will be added when the implementation will take place.


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